Epistemicide: the Roman Case





Epistemicide, Roman Republic and Empire, postcolonial, indigeneity, slavery, Mediterranean, extractivism, ecology.


The desire to recover and preserve the antiquity that in some circles is designated as “classical” is rooted in the conviction that knowledge of that antiquity is a good. But does (or should) awareness of the epistemicides that define Greco-Roman antiquity modify the texture of that desire? Relying on the definition of epistemicide proposed by the postcolonial theorist Boaventura de Sousa Santos, this article argues that the Roman Republic and Empire engineered a staggering loss of epistemic diversity throughout the ancient Mediterranean, traceable along multiple vectors — from mass enslavement to ecological upheaval. It concludes with a summons to come to terms with the scope of ancient Rome’s epistemicide, and to embrace the epistemological and ethical recalibration needed to write its history.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Dan-el Padilla Peralta, Princeton University

Assistant Professor of Classics at Princeton University, he is affiliated with the Programs in Latino Studies and Latin American Studies and the University Center for Human Values. He has co-edited a volume on appropriation in Roman culture for Cambridge University Press: Rome, empire of plunder: the dynamics of cultural appropriation (2017). His core research focus is the Roman Republic and early Empire. His 2015 memoir Undocumented: a Dominican boy's odyssey from a homeless shelter to Ivy League (Penguin Press) received an Alex Award from the American Library Association. In 2020 he published his Divine Institutions – Religions and Community in the Middle Roman Republic (Princeton University Press).



ADAMS, J. N. Bilingualism and the Latin language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

ADORNO, T. Negative dialectics. Tr. E. B. Ashton. London: Routledge, [1966] 1990.

AGER, B. Magic and genre in Columella’s caterpillar charm. Classical Philology, 114, p. 197-217, 2019.

AMIGUES, S. L’exploitation du monde végétal en Grèce classique et hellénistique. Essai de synthèse. Topoi, 15.1, p. 75-125, 2007.

ANDO, C. Vergil’s Italy: ethnography and politics in first-century Rome. In: LEVENE, D.; NELIS, D. (eds.) Clio and the poets. Leiden: Brill, 2002, p. 123-42.

ANDO, C. Hannibal’s legacy: sovereignty and territoriality in Republican Rome. In: HÖLKESKAMP, K.-J.; KARATAŞ, S.; ROTH, R. (eds.) Empire, hegemony or anarchy? Rome and Italy, 201-31 BCE. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 2019, p. 55-81.

ANDO, C.; RICHARDSON, S. (eds). Ancient states and infrastructural power: Europe, Asia, and America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017.

ANDERSON, G. The realness of things past: ancient Greece and ontological history. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

ANDREAS, P. Drugs and war: what is the relationship? Annual Review of Political Science, 22, p. 57-73, 2019.

BALLESTEROS PASTOR, L. Pompeyo Trogo, Justino y las críticas a Roma: a propósito del discurso etolio (Iust. XXVIII 2). Mediterraneo Antico, 12.1-2, p. 381-92, 2009.

BARBIERO, E. A. Myth, letters, and the poetics of ancestry in Plautus’ Bacchides. Ramus, 47.1, p. 2-26, 2018.

BARCHIESI, A. Bellum Italicum. L’unificazione dell’Italia nell’Eneide. In: URSO, G. (ed.) Patria diversibus gentibus una? Unità politica e identità etniche nell’Italia antica. Pisa: ETS, 2008, p. 243-60.

BARNEY, S. A.; LEWIS, W. J.; BEACH, J. A.; BERGHOF, O. (eds. and tr.) The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

BARRANDON, N. Les massacres de la République romaine. Paris: Fayard, 2018.

BELL, A. Spectacular power in the Greek and Roman city. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

BELTRÁN LLORIS, F. War, destruction, and regeneration in the middle Ebro valley (1st century BCE): the foundation of the colonia Caesar Augusta and its irrigation programmes. In: DERRON, P. (ed.) Économie et inégalité: ressources, échanges et pouvoir dans l’antiquité classique. Vandoeuvres: Fondation Hardt pour l’étude de l’antiquité Classique, 2017, p. 161-95.

BENNETT, J. Vibrant matter: a political ecology of things. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2010.

BERNARD, S.; DAMON, C.; GREY, C. Rhetorics of land and power in the Polla inscription (CIL I2 638). Mnemosyne, 67, p. 953-85, 2014.

BLAKE, S. Now you see them: slaves and other objects as elements of the Roman master. Helios, 39.2, p. 193-211, 2012.

BLOUIN, K.; MCMASTER, A.; MEBAN, D.; YUZWA, Z. Indigenizing Classics: a teaching guide. Everyday Orientalism, 2019. Available at: https://everydayorientalism.wordpress.com/2019/05/23/indigenizing-classics-a-teaching-guide/.

BOSAK-SCHROEDER, C. Other natures: environmental encounters with ancient Greek ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2020.

BRESSON, A. The making of the ancient Greek economy: institutions, markets, and growth in the city-states. Tr. S. Rendall. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2016.

BROWN, K. McC. Mama Lola: A Vodou priestess in Brooklyn. 3rd edition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

CADIOU, F. Hibera in terra miles. Les armées romaines et la conquête de l’Hispanie sous la République (218 – 45 av. J.-C.). Madrid: Casa de Velázquez, 2008.

CAMERON, C. M. Captives: How stolen people changed the world. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 2016.

CANFORA, L. The vanished library. Tr. M. Ryle. London: Hutchinson Radius, 1989.

CHAKRABARTY, D. Provincializing Europe: postcolonial thought and historical difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

CLACKSON, J.; HORROCKS, G. The Blackwell history of the Latin language. Malden and Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.

COCCO, M. B. La schiavitù nella Sardinia. Sintesi dei dati alla luce della documentazione letteraria ed epigrafica. In: DONDIN-PAYRE, M.; TRAN, N. (eds.) Esclaves et maîtres dans le monde romain. Expressions épigraphiques de leurs relations. Rome: École française de Rome, 2016, p. 298-318.

CONNELL, R. Untitled review: B. de Sousa Santos, Epistemologies of the South: justice against epistemicide. AJS, 120.3, p. 949-51, 2014.

CRAWFORD, M. H. Republican denarii in Romania: the suppression of piracy and the slave-trade. JRS, 67, p. 117-24, 1977.

CREER, T. Ethnography in Caesar’s Gallic War and its implications for composition. CQ, 69.1, p. 246-63, 2019.

ČULÍK-BAIRD, H. Staging Roman slavery in the second century BCE. Ramus, 48.2, p. 174-97, 2020.

DAUBNER, F. ‘What on earth became of them all?’ Continuity and change in Macedonian society after the Roman conquest. In: PEREGO, E.; SCOPACASA, R.; AMICONE, S. (eds.) Collapse or survival: micro-dynamics of crisis and endurance in the ancient central Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxbow, 2019, p. 139-54.

DENCH, E. From barbarians to new men: Greek, Roman, and modern perceptions of peoples of the central Apennines. New York: Clarendon Press of Oxford University Press, 1995.

DENCH, E. Beyond Greeks and barbarians: Italy and Sicily in the Hellenistic age. In: ERSKINE, A. (ed.) A companion to the Hellenistic world. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003, p. 294-310.

DE SANTIS, G.; AMES, C. La memoria histórica de la diversidad étnica italiana en Eneida de Virgilio. Circe, 15, p. 41-54, 2011.

DIETLER, M. Archaeologies of colonialism: consumption, entanglement, and violence in ancient Mediterranean France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

DUMM, T. L. Political theory for losers. In: FRANK, J. A.; TAMBORNINO, J. (eds.) Vocations of political theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000, p. 145-65.

DYSON, S. The creation of the Roman frontier. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985.

ERNOUT, A. Salluste, Histoires IV, 40. Revue de Philologie, 49.1, p. 57-9, 1925.

ERSKINE, A. Making sense of the Romans: Polybius and the Greek perspective. Dialogues d’histoire ancienne, Supplément 9 (Le point de vue de l’autre), p. 115-29, 2013.

FEENEY, D. C. Beyond Greek: the beginnings of Latin literature. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press, 2016.

FENTRESS, E. Slavers on chariots. In: DOWLER, A.; GALVIN, E. R. (eds.) Money, trade and trade routes in pre-Islamic North Africa. London: Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 65-71.

FENTRESS, E. Strangers in the city: élite communication in the Hellenistic central Mediterranean. In: PRAG, J. R. W.; CRAWLEY QUINN, J. (eds.) The Hellenistic west: rethinking the ancient Mediterranean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, p. 157-78.

FITZGERALD, W. Slavery and the Roman literary imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

FLAIG, E. Weltgeschichte der Sklaverei. Munich: C. H. Beck, 2009.

FOX, A. Trajanic trees: the Dacian forest on Trajan’s Column. PBSR, LXXXVII, p. 47-69, 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017S006824621800034X.

FRICKER, M. Epistemic injustice: power and the ethics of knowing. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2007.

FUTRELL, A. Blood in the arena: the spectacle of Roman power. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997.

GALEANO, E. Open veins of Latin America: five centuries of the pillage of a continent. Tr. C. Belfrage. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1971.

GALLINI, C. Che cosa intendere per ellenizzazione. Problemi di metodo. Dialoghi di arqueologia, 7, p. 175-91, 1973.

GARCÍA-ALIX, A.; JIMENEZ-ESPEJO, F. J.; LOZANO, J. A.; JIMÉNEZ-MORENO, G.; MARTINEZ-RUIZ, F.; GARCÍA SANJUÁN, L.; ARANDA JIMÉNEZ, G.; GARCÍA ALFONSO, E.; RUIZ-PUERTAS, G.; ANDERSON, R. S. Anthropogenic impact and lead pollution throughout the Holocene in southern Iberia. Science of the Total Environment, 449, p. 451-60, 2013.

GELLER, M. J. The last wedge. Zeitschrift für Assyrologie und Vorderasiastische Archäologie, 87.1, p. 43-95, 1997.

GOSNER, L. Extraction and empire: multi-scalar approaches to Roman mining communities and industrial landscapes in southwest Iberia. Archaeological Review from Cambridge, 31.2, p. 125-43, 2016.

HARRISON, T. Classical Greek ethnography and the slave trade. Classical Antiquity, 38.1, p. 36-57, 2019.

HARTMAN, S. Venus in two acts. Small Axe, 26.12.2, p. 1-14, 2008.

HARTMANN, B. Schreiben im Dienste des Staates. Prolegomena zu einer Kulturgeschichte der römischen scribae. In: KOLB, A. (ed.) Literacy in ancient everyday life. Berlin; Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2018, p. 351-60.

HÄUSSLER, R. A landscape of resistance? Cults and sacred landscapes in western Cisalpine Gaul. In: CRESCI MARRONE, G. (ed.) Trans Padum… usque ad Alpes. Roma tra il Po e le Alpi: dalla romanizzazione alla romanità. Rome: Quasar, 2015, p. 261-78.

HERSHENZON, D. The captive sea: slavery, communication, and commerce in early modern Spain and the Mediterranean. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018.

HIRT, A. M. Imperial mines and quarries in the Roman world: organizational aspects, 27 BC - AD 235. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

HONG, S.; CANDELONE, J. -P.; PATTERSON, C. C.; BOUTRON, C. F. Greenland ice evidence of hemispheric lead pollution two millennia ago by Greek and Roman civilizations. Science, v. 265, n. 5180, p. 1841-43, 1994.

HOWGEGO, C. The monetization of temperate Europe. JRS, 103, p. 16-45, 2013.

HUGHES, J. D. Europe as consumer of exotic biodiversity: Greek and Roman times. Landscape Research, 28.1, p. 21-31, 2003.

HUGHES, J. D. Environmental problems of the Greeks and Romans: ecology in the ancient Mediterranean. Second edition. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2014.

IBN SAID, O. A Muslim American slave: the life of Omar Ibn Said. Tr. A. Alryyes. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, [1831] 2011.

INGERSOLL, K. A. Waves of knowing: a seascape epistemology. Durham: Duke University Press, 2016.

JEFFERSON, E. Problems and audience in Cato’s Origines. In: ROSELAAR, S. T. (ed.) Processes of integration and identity formation in the Roman Republic. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012, p. 311-26.

JEWELL, E. (Re)moving the masses: colonisation as domestic displacement in the Roman Republic. Humanities, 8.66, p. 1-41, 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/h8020066.

JIMÉNEZ, A. Changing to remain the same: the southern Iberian Peninsula between the third and the first centuries BC. In: MOORE, T.; ARMADA, X.-L. (eds.) Atlantic Europe in the first millennium BC. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 506-18.

JOHNSTON, A. Nostri and ‘The Other(s).’ In: GRILLO, L.; KREBS, C. B. (eds.) The Cambridge companion to the writings of Julius Caesar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017a, p. 81-94.

JOHNSTON, A. The sons of Remus: identity in Roman Gaul and Spain. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017b.

JONES-LEWIS, M. Tribal identity in the Roman world: the case of the Psylloi. In: FUTO KENNEDY, R.; JONES-LEWIS, M. (eds.) The Routledge handbook of identity and the environment in the classical and medieval worlds. London: Routledge, 2015, p. 192-209.

KASTER, R. A. De grammaticis et rhetoribus C. Suetonius Tranquillus. Edited with a translation, introduction, and commentary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

KAY, P. Rome’s economic revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

KEENAN-JONES, D. Large-scale water management projects in Roman central-southern Italy. In: HARRIS, W. V. (ed.) The ancient Mediterranean environment between science and history. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2013, p. 233-56.

KOCH, A.; BRIERLEY, C.; MASLIN, M. M.; LEWIS, S. L. Earth system impacts of the European arrival and Great Dying in the Americas after 1492. Quaternary Science Reviews, 207, 2019, p. 13-36.

KONSTAN, D. Mass exterminations and the history of emotions: the view from classical antiquity. In: BRUDHOLM, T.; LANG, J. (eds.) Emotions and mass atrocity: philosophical and theoretical explorations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 23-41.

LENSKI, N.; CAMERON, C. M. (eds.) What is a slave society? The practice of slavery in global perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

LEWIS, D. M. Greek slave systems in their Eastern Mediterranean context, c. 800 - 146 BC. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

LOZAT, M. Aux confins du monde: la Géographie de Strabon. Semitica et Classica, 12, p. 97-108, 2019.

LLOYD, G. E. R. Science, folklore and ideology: studies in the life sciences in ancient Greece. Oxford: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

MACLEAN, R. Freed slaves and Roman imperial culture: social integration and the transformation of values. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

MACKINNON, M. Zooarchaeology: reconstructing the natural and cultural worlds from archaeological faunal remains. In: SCHEIDEL, W. (ed.) The science of Roman history: biology, climate, and the future of the past. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2018, p. 95-122.

MARACLE, L. Memory serves: oratories. Ed. S. Kambourelli. Edmonton, Alberta: NeWest Press, 2015.

MARZANO, A. Harvesting the sea: the exploitation of marine resources in the Roman Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

MCCONNELL, J. R.; WILSON, A. I.; STOHL, A.; ARIENZO, M. M.; CHELLMAN, N. J.; ECKHARDT, S.; THOMPSON, E. M.; POLLARD, A. M.; STEFFENSEN, J. P. Lead pollution recorded in Greenland ice indicates European emissions tracked plagues, wars, and imperial expansion during antiquity. PNAS, 115 (22), p. 5726-31, 2018. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1721818115.

MCNEILL, J. R. Europe’s place in the global history of biological exchange. Landscape Research, 28.1, p. 33-39, 2003.

MEDINA, J. The epistemology of resistance: gender and racial oppression, epistemic injustice, and the social imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

MEIGGS, R. Trees and timber in the ancient Mediterranean world. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982.

MIGNOLO, W. D. The geopolitics of knowledge and the colonial difference. South Atlantic Quarterly, 101.1, p. 57-96, 2002.

MIKESELL, M. W. “The deforestation of Mount Lebanon.” Geographical Review, 59.1, p. 1-28, 1969.

MORRIS, I. Remaining invisible: the archaeology of the excluded in classical Athens. In: JOSHEL, S. R.; MURNIGHAN, S. (eds.) Women and slaves in Greco-Roman culture: differential equations. London and New York: Routledge, 1998, p. 193-220.

MYERS, M. Import/export: empire and appropriation in the Gallus Papyrus from Qasr Ibrim. In: LOAR, M. P.; MACDONALD, C. S.; PADILLA PERALTA, D. (eds.) Rome, empire of plunder: the dynamics of cultural appropriation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 214-36.

NUTTON, V. Ancient medicine. New York: Routledge, [2004] 2013.

OSGOOD, J. The pen and the sword: writing and conquest in Caesar’s Gaul. Classical Antiquity, 28.2, p. 328-58, 2009.

PADILLA PERALTA, D. Slave religiosity in the Roman Middle Republic. CA, 36.2, p. 317-69, 2017a.

PADILLA PERALTA, D. Circulation’s thousand connectivities. In: LOAR, M. P.; MACDONALD, C. S.; PADILLA PERALTA, D. (eds.) Rome, empire of plunder: the dynamics of cultural appropriation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017b, p. 261-70.

PADILLA PERALTA, D. Ecology, epistemology, and divination in Cicero De Divinatione 1.90-94. Arethusa, 51.3, p. 237-67, 2018.

PADILLA PERALTA, D. Forthcoming. Anti-race and anti-racism: the whiteness of the classical imagination. In: MCCOSKEY, D. (ed.) A cultural history of race in antiquity. London.

PADILLA PERALTA, D. In progress. Tell me how I conquered you: some clues from the second century BCE Mediterranean.

PAGDEN, A. The fall of natural man: the American Indian and the origins of comparative ethnology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

PEIRANO, I. Hellenized Romans and barbarized Greeks. Reading the end of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Antiquitates Romanae. JRS, 100, p. 32-53, 2010.

PEREGO, E.; SCOPACASA, R. The agency of the displaced? Roman expansion, environmental forces and the occupation of marginal landscapes in ancient Italy. Humanities, 7.116, p. 1-21, 2018. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/h7040116.

POLLARD, E. A. Pliny’s Natural History and the Flavian Templum Pacis: botanical imperialism in first-century C.E. Rome. Journal of World History, 20.3, p. 309-38, 2009.

POLLOCK, S. The subject of suffering. American Anthropologist, 118.4, p. 726-41, 2016.

PRICE, S. Religious mobility in the Roman Empire. JRS, 102, p. 1-19, 2012.

PURCELL, N. The creation of provincial landscape: the Roman impact on Cisalpine Gaul. In: BLAGG, T.; MILLETT, M. (eds.) The early Roman Empire in the West. Oxford: Oxbow, 1990, p. 7-29.

PURCELL, N. Rome and the management of water: environment, culture and power. In: SALMON, J.; SHIPLEY, G. (eds.) Human landscapes in classical antiquity. London and New York: Routledge, 1996, p.180-212.

PURCELL, N. The ordo scribarum: a study in the loss of memory. MEFRA, 113.2, p. 633-74, 2001.

PURCELL, N. The way we used to eat: diet, community, and history at Rome. AJP, 124.3, p. 329-58, 2003.

PURCELL, N. Mountain margins: power, resources and environmental inequality in antiquity. In: DERRON, P. (ed.) Économie et inégalité. Ressources, échanges, et pouvoir dans l’antiquité Classique. Vandoeuvres: Fondation Hardt pour l’étude de l’antiquité Classique, 2017, p. 75-114.

QUESADA-SANZ, F. Genocide and mass murder in Second Iron Age Europe. In: CARMICHAEL, C.; MAGUIRE, R. C. (eds.) The Routledge history of genocide. London: Routledge, 2015, p. 9-22.

RABASA, J. Tell me the story of how I conquered you: elsewheres and ethnosuicide in the colonial Mesoamerican world. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011.

REAY, B. Agriculture, writing, and Cato’s aristocratic self-fashioning. Classical Antiquity, 24.2, p. 331-61, 2005.

RIBERA I LACOMBA, A.; CALVO GALVEZ, M. La primera evidencia arqueológica de la destrucción de Valentia por Pompeyo. JRA, 8, p. 19-40, 1995.

RICHARDSON, J. S. The Romans in Spain. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 1996.

RICHLIN, A. Talking to slaves in the Plautine audience. CA, 33.1, p. 174-226, 2014.

RICHLIN, A. Slave-woman drag. In: DUTSCH, D.; JAMES, S. L.; KONSTAN, D. (eds.) Women in Roman Republican drama. Madison WI/London: University of Wisconsin Press, 2015, p. 37-67.

RICHLIN, A. The traffic in shtick. In: LOAR, M. P.; MACDONALD, C. S.; PADILLA PERALTA, D. (eds.) Rome, empire of plunder: the dynamics of cultural appropriation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 169-93.

RICHLIN, A. Slave theater in the Roman Republic: Plautus and popular comedy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

RIGGSBY, A. M. Caesar in Gaul and Rome: war in words. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.

ROLLER, D. W. A historical and topographical guide to the Geography of Strabo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

ROSELAAR, S. T. Italy’s economic revolution: integration and economy in Republican Italy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.

ROYMANS, N. Conquest, mass violence and ethnic stereotyping: investigating Caesar’s actions in the Germanic frontier zone. JRA, 32, p. 439-58, 2019.

RUSSELL, B. Stone use and the economy: demand, distribution, and the state. In: WILSON, A.; BOWMAN, A. (eds.) Trade, commerce, and the state in the Roman world. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 237-68.

SALLARES, R. Ecology. In: SCHEIDEL, W.; MORRIS, I.; SALLER, R. (eds.) The Cambridge economic history of the Greco-Roman world. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 15-47.

SANTOS, B. de Sousa. Epistemologies of the South: justice against epistemicide. Boulder: Routledge, 2014.

SANTOS, B. de Sousa. Epistemologies of the South and the future. From the European South, 1, p. 17-29, 2016.

SANTOS, B. de Sousa. The end of the cognitive empire: the coming of age of epistemologies of the South. Durham: Duke University Press, 2018.

SCHEID, J. (ed.) Römische Fragen: ein virtueller Spaziergang im Herzen des alten Rom. Plutarch. Darmstadt: WBG, 2012.

SCHEIDEL, W. Quantifying the sources of slaves in the early Roman Empire. JRS, 87, p. 156-69, 1997.

SCHEIDEL, W. Human mobility in Roman Italy, I: the free population. JRS, 94, p. 1-26, 2004.

SCHEIDEL, W. Human mobility in Roman Italy, II: the slave population. JRS, 95, p. 64-79, 2005.

SCHEIDEL, W. The Roman slave supply. In: BRADLEY, K.; CARTLEDGE, P. (eds.) The Cambridge world history of slavery, Vol. 1: The ancient Mediterranean world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, p. 287-310.

SCHEIDEL, W. Escape from Rome: the failure of empire and the road to prosperity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2019.

SHANNON-HENDERSON, K. E. Religion and memory in Tacitus’ Annals. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.

SHELTON, J.-A. Spectacles of animal abuse. In: CAMPBELL, G. L. (ed.) The Oxford handbook of animals in classical thought and life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 461-77.

SEHLMEYER, M. Die apuanischen Ligurer bei Livius. Geschichte einer (fast) vergessenen Deportation. Hermes, 146.4, p. 470-83, 2018.

SIMÓN CORNAGO, I. Lenguas vernáculas de Hispania escritas en alfabeto latino. Un episodio particular de la latinización. Athenaeum, 107.1, p. 55-93, 2019.

STRASBURGER, H. Poseidonios on problems of the Roman Empire. JRS, 55.1-2, p. 40-53, 1965.

TERRENATO, N. The early Roman expansion into Italy: elite negotiation and family agendas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

TROUILLOT, M.-R. Silencing the past: power and the production of history. Boston: Beacon, 1995.

VAN WEES, H. Genocide in the ancient world. In: BLOXHAM, D.; MOSES, A. D. (eds.) The Oxford handbook of genocide studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 239-57.

VEAL, R. The politics and economics of ancient forests: timber and fuel as levers of Greco-Roman control. In: DERRON, P. (ed.) Économie et inégalité: ressources, échanges et pouvoir dans l’antiquité classique. Vandoeuvres: Fondation Hardt pour l’étude de l’antiquité Classique, 2017, p. 317-57.

VOLKMANN, H. Die Massenversklavungen der Einwohner eroberter Städte in der hellenistisch-römischen Zeit. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1990.

WALLACE-HADRILL, A. Rome’s cultural revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

WELWEI, K. -W. Sub corona vendere: Quellenkritische Studien zu Kriegsgefangenschaft und Sklaverei in Rom bis zum Ende des Hannibalkrieges. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 2000.

WESTINGTON, M. M. Atrocities in Roman warfare to 133 BC. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago, 1933.

WHITMARSH, T. How to write anti-Roman history. In: ALLEN, D.; CHRISTESEN, P.; MILLETT, P. (eds.) How to do things with history: new approaches to ancient Greece. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 365-89.

WHITT, L. Science, colonialism, and indigenous peoples: the cultural politics of law and knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

WILSON, A. Raw materials and energy. In: SCHEIDEL, W. (ed.) The Cambridge companion to the Roman economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012, p. 133-55.

WIMPERIS, T. A. Turnus’s Tota Italia: Italian solidarity and political rhetoric in Aeneid 7-12. TAPA, 150.1, p. 143-79, 2020.

WOOLF, G. Tales of the barbarians: ethnography and empire in the Roman West. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.

YARROW, L. M. Historiography at the end of the Republic: provincial perspectives on Roman rule. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

YUSOFF, K. A billion Black Anthropocenes or none. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2018.

ZIOLKOWSKI, A. “Urbs direpta, or how the Romans sacked cities.” In: RICH, J.; SHIPLEY, G. (eds.) War and society in the Roman world. London and New York: Routledge, 1993, p. 69-91.




Como Citar

Peralta, D.- el P. (2020). Epistemicide: the Roman Case. Classica - Revista Brasileira De Estudos Clássicos, 33(2), 151–186. https://doi.org/10.24277/classica.v33i2.934