The Flying King: the novelistic Alexander (Pseudo-Callisthenes 2.41) and the traditions of the Ancient Orient

Ioannis M. Konstantakos


The story of Alexander’s flight is preserved in early Byzantine versions of the Alexander Romance (codex L, recensions λ
and γ) but is already mentioned by Rabbi Jonah of Tiberias (4th century AD) in the Jerusalem Talmud. The narrative must have been created between the late Hellenistic period and the early Imperial age. Although there are differences in details, the main storyline is common in all versions. Alexander fabricates a basket or large bag, which hangs from a yoke and is lifted into the air by birds of prey; Alexander guides the birds upwards by baiting them with a piece of meat fixed on a long spear. The same story-pattern is found in oriental tales about the Iranian king Kai Kāūs and the Babylonian Nimrod. Kai Kāūs’ adventure was included in the Zoroastrian Avesta and must have been current in the Iranian mythical tradition during the first millennium BCE. It is then transmitted by Medieval Islamic authors (Ṭabarī, Bal‘amī, Firdausī, Tha‘ālibī, Dīnawarī), who ultimately depend on Sasanian historical compilations, in which the early mythology of Iran had been collected. The story of Kai Kāūs’ ascension is earlier than Pseudo-Callisthenes’ narrative and contains a clear indication of morphological priority: in some versions the Persian king flies while seated on his throne, which reflects a very ancient and widespread image of royal iconography in Iran and Assyria. Probably Alexander’s aerial journey was derived from an old oriental tradition of tales about flying kings, to which the stories of Kai Kāūs and Nimrod also belonged. The throne had to be eliminated from Alexander’s story, because the episode was set during Alexander’s wanderings at the extremities of the world. The Macedonian king had therefore to fabricate his flying vehicle from readily available materials. Later, after the diffusion of Pseudo-Callisthenes’ romance in the Orient, the tale of Alexander’s ascension might have exercised secondary influence on some versions of the stories of Kai Kāūs and Nimrod, regarding specific details such as the use of the bait.


Alexander the Great; Alexander Romance; Kai Kāūs; Iranian myth; flying throne; flying machine.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


ABDULLAEVA, F. Kingly Flight: Nimrūd, Kay Kāvūs, Alexander, or Why the Angel Has the Fish. Persica, v. 23, p. 1-29, 2010.

AERTS, W. J. Alexander the Great and Ancient Travel Stories. In: VON MARTELS, Zweder (ed.). Travel Fact and Travel Fiction. Studies on Fiction, Literary Tradition, Scholarly Discovery and Observation in Travel Writing. Leiden: Brill, 1994, p. 30-38.

ALBERTI, A. Avestā. Torino: Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 1974.

AMITAY, O. From Alexander to Jesus. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

ANDERSON, G. The Alexander Romance and the Pattern of Hero-Legend. In: STONEMAN, Richard; ERICKSON, Kyle; NETTON, Ian (ed.). The Alexander Romance in Persia and the East. Groningen: Barkhuis & Groningen University Library, 2012, p. 81-102.

ASHERI, D.; LLOYD, A.; CORCELLA, A. A Commentary on Herodotus Books I-IV. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

BAKER, H. S. Furniture in the Ancient World. Origins and Evolution 3100-475 B.C. London: The Connoisseur, 1966.

BARNETT, R. D.; BLEIBTREU, E.; TURNER, G. Sculptures from the Southwest Palace of Sennacherib at Nineveh. London: The British Museum Press, 1998.

BERGSON, L. Der griechische Alexanderroman. Rezension β. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1965.

BIALIK, H. N.; RAVNITZKY, Y. H. The Book of Legends. Sefer Ha-Aggadah. Legends from the Talmud and Midrash. New York: Schocken, 1992.

BOFFITO, G. La leggenda aviatoria di Alessandro Magno nella letteratura e nell’arte. La Bibliofilia, v. 23, p. 22-32, 1921.

BOITANI, P.; BOLOGNA, C.; CIPOLLA, A.; LIBORIO, M. Alessandro nel medioevo occidentale. Milano: Mondadori, 1997.

BOLTE, J.; POLÍVKA, G. Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und Hausmärchen der Brüder Grimm. Leipzig: Dieterichs, 1930. v. 4.

BOUNOURE, G.; SERRET, B. Pseudo-Callisthène, Le Roman d’Alexandre. La vie et les hauts faits d’Alexandre de Macédoine. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1992.

BOYCE, M. A History of Zoroastrianism. Leiden: Brill, 1975. v. 1.

BOYCE, M. Middle Persian Literature. In: SPULER, Bertold (ed.). Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden: Brill, 1968, p. 31-66. v. 1, t. 4.2.

BOYCE, M. Some Remarks on the Transmission of the Kayanian Heroic Cycle. In: Serta Cantabrigiensia viris doctissimis clarissimisque qui a die XXI usque ad diem XXVIII mensis Augusti anni MCMLIV ad XXIII congressum internationalem rebus litterisque orientalibus dedicatum Cantabrigiam convenerunt. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1954, p. 45-52.

BOYCE, M. Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1990.

BOYCE, M. Zariadres and Zarēr. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, v. 17, p. 463-77, 1955.

BRIANT, P. From Cyrus to Alexander. A History of the Persian Empire. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2002.

BRINNER, W. M. ‘Arā’is al-majālis fī qiṣaṣ al-anbiyā’ or “Lives of the Prophets” as Recounted by Abū Isḥāq Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Tha‘labī. Leiden: Brill, 2002.

BROWNE, E. G. A Literary History of Persia. London: Unwin, 1902. v. 1.

BUDGE, E. A. W. The Alexander Book in Ethiopia. The Ethiopic Versions of Pseudo-Callisthenes, the Chronicle of Al-Makîn, the Narrative of Joseph Ben Gorion, and a Christian Romance of Alexander. London: Humphrey Milford, 1933.

CARY, G. The Medieval Alexander. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956.

CENTANNI, M. Il Romanzo di Alessandro. Torino: Einaudi, 1991.

CHRISTENSEN, A. Les gestes des rois dans les traditions de l’Iran antique. Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1936.

CHRISTENSEN, A. Les Kayanides. Copenhagen: Bianco Luno, 1931.

COLLARD, C.; CROPP, M. J.; LEE, K. H. Euripides: Selected Fragmentary Plays. Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1995. v. 1.

DALLEY, S. Myths from Mesopotamia. Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

DARMESTETER, J. Observations sur le Vendîdâd. Journal Asiatique, v. 17, p. 435-514, 1881.

DARMESTETER, J. The Zend-Avesta. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1883. v. 2.

DAVIS, D. Abolqasem Ferdowsi, Shahnameh. The Persian Book of Kings. London: Penguin, 2006.

DE MENASCE, J. P. Zoroastrian Pahlavī Writings. In: YARSHATER, Ehsan (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. v. 3, p. 1166-95.

DÖNITZ, S. Alexander the Great in Medieval Hebrew Traditions. In: ZUWIYYA, Z. David (ed.). A Companion to Alexander Literature in the Middle Ages. Brill: Leiden, 2011, p. 21-39.

DULĘBA, W. The Cyrus Legend in the Šāhnāme. Krakow: The Enigma Press, 1995.

DUMÉZIL, G. Mythe et Épopée. Paris: Gallimard, 1971. v. 2.

DUNLOP, D. M. Bal‘amī. In: The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition. Leiden: Brill, 1960. v. 1, p. 984-5.

ENGELMANN, H. Der griechische Alexanderroman. Rezension Γ. Buch II. Meisenheim am Glan: Anton Hain, 1963.

FOSTER, B. R. Before the Muses. An Anthology of Akkadian Literature. Bethesda: CDL Press, 2005.

FRASER, P. M. Cities of Alexander the Great. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

FUSILLO, M. Letteratura di consumo e romanzesca. In: CAMBIANO, Giuseppe; CANFORA, Luciano; LANZA, Diego (ed.). Lo spazio letterario della Grecia antica. Roma: Salerno Editrice, 1994. v. 1, t. 3, p. 233-73.

GANTZ, T. Early Greek Myth. A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

GARRISON, M. B. By the Favor of Auramazdā: Kingship and the Divine in the Early Achaemenid Period. In: IOSSIF, Panagiotis P.; CHANKOWSKI, Andrzej S.; LORBER, Catharine C. (ed.). More Than Men, Less Than Gods. Studies on Royal Cult and Imperial Worship. Leuven: Peeters, 2011, p. 15-104.

GARRISON, M. B. Royal Achaemenid Iconography. In: POTTS, Daniel T. (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 566-95.

GERSHEVITCH, I. Old Iranian Literature. In: SPULER, Bertold (ed.). Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden: Brill, 1968. v. 1, t. 4.2, p. 1-30.

GHIRSHMAN, R. Notes iraniennes VII. A propos de Persépolis. Artibus Asiae, v. 20, p. 265-78, 1957.

GIGNOUX, P. Dēnkard. In: YARSHATER, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopaedia Iranica. Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers, 1996. v. 7, p. 284-9.

GINZBERG, L. The Legends of the Jews. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1909. v. 1.

GINZBERG, L. The Legends of the Jews. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1925. v. 5.

GRESSMANN, H. Altorientalische Texte und Bilder zum Alten Testamente. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1909. v. 2.

GUGGENHEIMER, H. W. The Jerusalem Talmud. Fourth Order: Neziqin. Tractates Ševi‘it and ‘Avodah Zarah. Edition, Translation, and Commentary. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2011.

GUNDERSON, L. L. Alexander’s Letter to Aristotle about India. Meisenheim am Glan: Anton Hain, 1980.

HAUL, M. Das Etana-Epos. Ein Mythos von der Himmelfahrt des Königs von Kiš. Göttingen: Seminar für Keilschriftforschung, 2000.

HILKA, A.; STEFFENS, K. Historia Alexandri Magni (Historia de preliis). Rezension J1. Meisenheim am Glan: Anton Hain, 1979.

HILKA, A. Historia Alexandri Magni (Historia de preliis). Rezension J2 (Orosius-Rezension). Zweiter Teil. Meisenheim am Glan: Anton Hain, 1977.

HINTZE, A. Avestan Literature. In: EMMERICK, Ronald E.; MACUCH, Maria (ed.). The Literature of Pre-Islamic Iran. London: I. B. Tauris, 2009, p. 1-71.

HINTZE, A. Der Zamyād-Yašt. Edition, Übersetzung, Kommentar. Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert, 1994.

HOFMANN, I.; VORBICHLER, A. Der Äthiopenlogos bei Herodot. Wien: Afro-Pub, 1979.

HOROWITZ, W. Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1998.

HÜBNER, A. Alexander der Große in der deutschen Dichtung des Mittelalters. Die Antike, v. 9, p. 32-48, 1933.

JACKSON BONNER, M. R. An Historiographical Study of Abū Ḥanīfa Aḥmad ibn Dāwūd ibn Wanand al-Dīnawarī’s Kitāb al-Aḫbār al-Ṭiwāl (Especially of That Part Dealing with the Sasanian Kings). PhD Dissertation. Oxford: University of Oxford, 2014.

JOUANNO, C. Naissance et métamorphoses du Roman d’Alexandre. Domaine grec. Paris: CNRS Éditions, 2002.

KAZIS, I. J. The Book of the Gests of Alexander of Macedon. A Mediaeval Hebrew Version of the Alexander Romance by Immanuel Ben Jacob Bonfils. Cambridge, MA: The Medieval Academy of America, 1962.

KENT, R. G. Old Persian. Grammar, Texts, Lexicon. New Haven: American Oriental Society, 1953.

KINNIER WILSON, J. Studia Etanaica. New Texts and Discussions. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2007.

KONSTANTAKOS, I. M. Ἀκίχαρος. Ἡ Διήγηση τοῦ Ἀχικὰρ στὴν ἀρχαία Ἑλλάδα. Athens: Stigmi, 2009. v. 2.

KONSTANTAKOS, I. M. Ἀκίχαρος. Ἡ Διήγηση τοῦ Ἀχικὰρ στὴν ἀρχαία Ἑλλάδα. Athens: Stigmi, 2013. v. 3.

KONSTANTAKOS, I. M. Death in Babylon: Alexander and the Fatal Portent (Alexander Romance III 30). Eikasmos, v. 27, p. 253-74, 2015.

KONSTANTAKOS, I. M. The Island That Was a Fish: An Ancient Folktale in the Alexander Romance and in Other Texts of Late Antiquity. In: RUIZ-MONTERO, Consuelo (ed.). Aspects of Orality and Greek Literature in the Roman Empire. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2019, p. 281-301.

KONSTANTAKOS, I. M. The Wisdom of the Hidden Old Man: An Ancient Folktale of the East in the Alexander Romance. Athenaeum, v. 105, p. 444-81, 2017.

KREFTER, F. Persepolis Rekonstruktionen. Der Wiederaufbau des Frauenpalastes. Rekonstruktionen der Paläste. Modell von Persepolis. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1971.

KYRIELEIS, H. Throne und Klinen. Studien zur Formgeschichte altorientalischer und griechischer Sitz- und Liegemöbel vorhellenistischer Zeit. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1969.

LAYARD, A. H. Discoveries Among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1853.

LAYARD, A. H. Nineveh and its Remains. London: John Murray, 1850. v. 2.

LECOQ, P. Les inscriptions de la Perse achéménide. Paris: Gallimard, 1997.

LECOQ, P. Les livres de l’Avesta. Les textes sacrés des Zoroastriens ou Mazdéens. Paris: Cerf, 2016.

LÉVI, I. La légende d’Alexandre dans le Talmud et le Midrasch. Revue des Études Juives, v. 7, p. 78-93, 1883.

LÉVI, I. Les traductions hébraïques de l’histoire légendaire d’Alexandre. Revue des Études Juives, v. 3, p. 238-75, 1881.

LEVIN, I. Etana. Die keilschriftlichen Belege einer Erzählung. Fabula, v. 8, p. 1-63, 1966.

LEWY, H. The Babylonian Background of the Kay Kâûs Legend. Archiv Orientální, v. 17, p. 28-109, 1949.

LIDDELL, H. G.; SCOTT, R.; JONES, H. S. A Greek-English Lexicon. 9th edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.

LOOMIS, R. S. Alexander the Great’s Celestial Journey. The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, v. 32, p. 136-40, 177-85, 1918.

L’ORANGE, H. P. Studies on the Iconography of Cosmic Kingship in the Ancient World. Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co., 1953.

LUCKENBILL, D. D. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1927. v. 2.

MALANDRA, W. W. An Introduction to Ancient Iranian Religion. Readings from the Avesta and Achaemenid Inscriptions. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983.

MALLOWAN, M. Cyrus the Great (558-529 B.C.). In: GERSHEVITCH, Ilya (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968. v. 2, p. 392-419.

MANTEGHI, H. Alexander the Great in the Persian Tradition. History, Myth and Legend in Medieval Iran. London: I. B. Tauris, 2018.

MEISSNER, B. Alexander und Gilgamos. Leipzig: August Pries, 1894.

MEISSNER, B. Das Märchen vom weisen Achiqar. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1917.

MELVILLE, F. A Flying King. In: STONEMAN, Richard; ERICKSON, Kyle; NETTON, Ian (ed.). The Alexander Romance in Persia and the East. Groningen: Barkhuis & Groningen University Library, 2012, p. 405-9.

MERKELBACH, R. Die Quellen des griechischen Alexanderromans. 2nd edition in collaboration with J. TRUMPF. München: Beck, 1977.

METZGER, B. M.; COOGAN, M. D. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

MILLET, G. L’ascension d’Alexandre. Syria, v. 4, p. 85-133, 1923.

MOHL, J. Le Livre des Rois par Abou’lkasim Firdousi. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1876. v. 2.

MOROSINI, R. The Alexander Romance in Italy. In: ZUWIYYA, Z. David (ed.). A Companion to Alexander Literature in the Middle Ages. Brill: Leiden, 2011, p. 329-64.

NAWOTKA, K. The Alexander Romance by Ps.-Callisthenes. A Historical Commentary. Leiden: Brill, 2017.

NÖLDEKE, T. Beiträge zur Geschichte des Alexanderromans. Denkschriften der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, philosophisch-historische Classe, 38. Wien: F. Tempsky, 1890.

NÖLDEKE, T. Das iranische Nationalepos. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1920.

PARPOLA, S. Assyrian Prophecies. Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 1997.

PERLMANN, M. The History of al-Ṭabarī. New York: State University of New York Press, 1987. v. 4.

PFEIFFER, R. H. State Letters of Assyria. A Transliteration and Translation of 355 Official Assyrian Letters Dating from the Sargonid Period (722-625 B.C.). New Haven: American Oriental Society, 1935.

PFISTER, F. Der Alexanderroman des Archipresbyters Leo. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1913.

PFISTER, F. Kleine Schriften zum Alexanderroman. Meisenheim am Glan: Anton Hain, 1976.

PIRART, É. Les Adorables de Zoroastre. Textes avestiques. Paris: Max Milo, 2010.

PIZZI, I. Firdusi, Il libro dei re. Poema epico recato dal persiano in versi italiani. Torino: Vincenzo Bona, 1887. v. 2.

PORADA, E. Notes on the Sarcophagus of Ahiram. Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society, v. 5, p. 355-72, 1973.

PRITCHARD, J. B. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 3rd edition with supplement. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.

PRITCHARD, J. B. The Ancient Near East in Pictures Relating to the Old Testament. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1954.

RACHET, G. Avesta. Le livre sacré des Anciens Perses. Paris: Sand, 1996. v. 1.

REHATSEK, E. The Rauzat-us-safa; or, Garden of Purity. Containing the Histories of Prophets, Kings, and Khalifs. By Muhammad bin Khâvendshâh bin Mahmûd, Commonly Called Mirkhond. London: The Royal Asiatic Society, 1891.

ROHDE, E. Der griechische Roman und seine Vorläufer. 3rd edition. Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1914.

RÖLLIG, W. Überlegungen zum Etana-Mythos. In: GAMER-WALLERT, Ingrid; HELCK, Wolfgang (ed.). Gegengabe. Festschrift für Emma Brunner-Traut. Tübingen: Attempto Verlag, 1992, p. 283-8.

ROMM, J. S. The Edges of the Earth in Ancient Thought. Geography, Exploration, and Fiction. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

ROOT, M. C. Art and Archaeology of the Achaemenid Empire. In: SASSON, Jack M. (ed.). Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. New York: Scribner, 1995. v. 4, p. 2615-37.

ROOT, M. C. The King and Kingship in Achaemenid Art. Essays on the Creation of an Iconography of Empire. Leiden: Brill, 1979.

ROSENMEYER, P. A. Ancient Epistolary Fictions. The Letter in Greek Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

ROSS, D. J. A. Alexander Historiatus. A Guide to Medieval Illustrated Alexander Literature. Frankfurt a. M.: Athenäum, 1988.

RYPKA, J. (ed.). Iranische Literaturgeschichte. Leipzig: Harrassowitz, 1959.

SARRE, F.; HERZFELD, E. Iranische Felsreliefs. Aufnahmen und Untersuchungen von Denkmälern aus alt- und mittelpersischer Zeit. Berlin: Ernst Wasmuth, 1910.

SCHEPENS, G.; DELCROIX, K. Ancient Paradoxography: Origin, Evolution, Production and Reception. In: PECERE, Oronzo; STRAMAGLIA, Antonio (ed.). La letteratura di consumo nel mondo greco-latino. Cassino: Università degli Studi di Cassino, 1996, p. 373-460.

SCHMIDT, E. F. Persepolis. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1953. v. 1.

SCHMIDT, E. F. Persepolis. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1970. v. 3.

SCHMIDT, V. M. A Legend and Its Image. The Aerial Flight of Alexander the Great in Medieval Art. Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1995.

SCHMITT, R. Die altpersischen Inschriften der Achaimeniden. Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2009.

SELZ, G. J. Die Etana-Erzählung. Ursprung und Tradition eines der ältesten epischen Texte in einer semitischen Sprache. Acta Sumerologica, v. 20, p. 135-79, 1998.

SETTIS-FRUGONI, C. Historia Alexandri elevati per griphos ad aerem. Origine, iconografia e fortuna di un tema. Roma: Istituto Storico Italiano per il Medio Evo, 1973.

SHAHBAZI, A. S. On the Xwadāy-nāmag. In: AMIN, Dina; KASHEFF, Manouchehr; SHAHBAZI, Alireza Shapour (ed.). Iranica Varia. Papers in Honor of Professor Ehsan Yarshater. Leiden: Brill, 1990, p. 208-29.

SKJÆRVØ, P. O. Avesta and Zoroastrianism under the Achaemenids and Early Sasanians. In: POTTS, Daniel T. (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 547-65.

SKJÆRVØ, P. O. Eastern Iranian Epic Traditions II: Rostam and Bhīṣma. Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, v. 51, p. 159-70, 1998.

SKJÆRVØ, P. O. Introduction to Zoroastrianism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2005.

STEFFENS, K. Die Historia de preliis Alexandri Magni. Rezension J3. Meisenheim am Glan: Anton Hain, 1975.

STONEMAN, R. Alexander the Great. A Life in Legend. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.

STONEMAN, R. Il Romanzo di Alessandro. Translated by T. Gargiulo. Milano: Mondadori, 2007. v. 1.

STONEMAN, R. Il Romanzo di Alessandro. Translated by T. Gargiulo. Milano: Mondadori, 2012. v. 2.

STONEMAN, R. Oriental Motifs in the Alexander Romance. Antichthon, v. 26, p. 95-113, 1992.

STONEMAN, R. Romantic Ethnography: Central Asia and India in the Alexander Romance. Ancient World, v. 25, p. 93-107, 1994b.

STONEMAN, R. The Alexander Romance. From History to Fiction. In: MORGAN, John R.; STONEMAN, Richard (ed.). Greek Fiction. The Greek Novel in Context. London: Routledge, 1994a, p. 117-29.

STONEMAN, R. The Greek Alexander Romance. London: Penguin, 1991.

SUNDERMANN, W. Zoroastrian Motifs in Non-Zoroastrian Traditions. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, v. 18, p. 155-65, 2008.

THOM, J. C. Cosmic Order and Divine Power. Pseudo-Aristotle, On the Cosmos. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2014.

TRUMPF, J. Eine unbekannte Sammlung von Auszügen aus dem griechischen Alexanderroman. Classica et Mediaevalia, v. 26, p. 83-100, 1965.

VAN THIEL, H. Die Rezension λ des Pseudo-Kallisthenes. Bonn: Rudolf Habelt, 1959.

VAN THIEL, H. Leben und Taten Alexanders von Makedonien. Der griechische Alexanderroman nach der Handschrift L. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1974.

VEVAINA, Y. S.-D. Hubris and Himmelfahrt. The Narrative Logic of Kay Us’ Ascent to Heaven in Pahlavi Literature. In: MACUCH, Maria; WEBER, Dieter; DURKIN-MEISTERERNST, Desmond (ed.). Ancient and Middle Iranian Studies. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2010, p. 231-43.

VON GRUNEBAUM, G. E. Medieval Islam. A Study in Cultural Orientation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1946.

VON RAD, G. Genesis. A Commentary. London: SCM Press, 1963.

WARNER, A. G.; WARNER, E. The Sháhnáma of Firdausí. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1905. v. 1.

WARNER, A. G.; WARNER, E. The Sháhnáma of Firdausí. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1906. v. 2.

WATERMAN, L. Royal Correspondence of the Assyrian Empire. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1930. v. 1.

WEST, E. W. Pahlavi Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1892. v. 4.

WESTERMANN, C. Genesis 1-11. A Commentary. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1984.

WINITZER, A. Etana in Eden: New Light on the Mesopotamian and Biblical Tales in Their Semitic Context. Journal of the American Oriental Society, v. 133, p. 441-65, 2013.

YARSHATER, E. Iranian Historical Tradition. In: YARSHATER, Ehsan (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, v. 3, p. 341-477.

ZOTENBERG, H. Chronique de Abou-Djafar-Mo‘hammed-ben-Djarir-ben-Yezid Tabari, traduite sur la version persane d’Abou-‘Ali Mo‘hammed Bel‘ami. Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1867. v. 1.

ZOTENBERG, H. Histoire des rois des Perses par Aboû Manṣoûr ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Moḥammad ibn Ismâ‘îl al-Tha‘âlibî. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1900.


Métricas do artigo

Carregando Métricas ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • Não há apontamentos.

Direitos autorais 2020 Ioannis M. Konstantakos

Licença Creative Commons
Esta obra está licenciada sob uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.


 Classica está licenciada sob a Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional