Images of Dead Poets in Roman Elegiac and Lyric Underworld


  • Paulo Sérgio de Vasconcellos Universidade Estadual de Campinas



Roman elegy, Roman lyric poetry, Ovid, underworld.


In this paper I analyse and compare the representations (or self-representations) of poets in the underworld in elegiac and lyric Roman poetry. I focus especially on five poems: Tibullus I.3; Propertius II. 34; Ovid, Amores II.6 (birds as poets) and III.9; Horace, Odes II.13. It is not my intention to give a detailed interpretation of the whole poems; my principal aim is to analyse how dead poets are pictured in two different genres, the elegiac and the lyric, which share certain features (for instance, we can have in some lyric poems the poetic persona of a lover, the amator, which characterizes erotic elegy discourse, and some similar topics, as the metaphor of love as illness, etc.). At the end of this paper, I will point to the images of dead poets that are (I think) the most representative of the difference between elegiac and lyric genres. In the footnotes I provide some bibliographical references on studies and commentaries about each of the poems I treat here.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Paulo Sérgio de Vasconcellos, Universidade Estadual de Campinas

Instituto de Estudos da Linguagem (IEL), UNICAMP

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Linguística, UNICAMP



ADAMS, J. N. The Latin sexual vocabulary. London: Duckworth, 1982.

ANDRÉ, Jacques (Ed.). Albius Tibullus elegiarum Liber Primus. Paris: PUF, 1965.

ARWEILER, Alexander; MÖLLER, Melanie (Ed.). Vom Selbst-Verständnis in Antike und Neuzeit. Notions of the self in Antiquity and beyond. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2008.

AUSTIN, R. G. P. Vergili Maronis Aeneidos liber sextus. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.

BAILEY, D. R. Shackleton (Ed.). Q. Horatius Flaccus. Opera. Munique/Leipzig: K.G. Saur, 2001.

BOUCHER, Jean-Paul. Études sur Properce: problèmes d’inspiration et d’art. Paris: Boccard, 1965.

BOYD, Barbara Weiden. The death of Corinna’s parrot reconsidered: poetry and Ovid’s “Amores”. The Classical Journal, v. 82, n. 3, p. 199-207, 1987.

BRIGHT, David F. Haec mihi fingebam. Tibullus in his world. Leiden: Brill, 1978.

BUTTLER, H.E.; BARBER, E.A. The elegies of Propertius. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1933.

CAHOON, Leslie. In response to Barbara Weiden Boyd, “The dead of Corinna’s parrot reconsidered: poetry and Ovid’s ‘Amores’”. The Classical Journal, v. 86, n. 4, p. 368-336, 1991.

CAHOON, Leslie. The Parrot and the Poet: the function of Ovid’s funeral elegies. The Classical Journal, v. 80, n.1, p. 27-35, 1984.

CAIRNS, Francis. Virgil’s Augustan epic. Cambridge: University Press, 1989.

CAIRNS, Francis. Tibullus: a hellenistic poet at Rome. Cambridge: University Press, 1979.

CAIRNS, Francis. Varius and Vergil: two pupils of Philodemus in Propertius 2.34? In: ARMSTRONG, David et alii (Ed.). Vergil, Philodemus, and the Augustans. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004.

CAMPBELL, C. Tibullus: Elegy I. 3. YClS, v. 23, p. 147-157, 1973.

CAMPS, W. A. Propertius elegies. Book II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.

CATANZARO, G.; SANTUCCI, F. (Org.). Bimillenario della morte di Properzio. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi Properziani. Roma-Assisi, 21-26, maggio 1985.

CECCHINI, Enzo. Properzio 2,34. Rivista di filologia e di istruzione classica, v. 112, p. 154-166, 1984.

CLAUSEN, Wendell. Vergil Eclogues. Oxford: University Press, 1995.

COMMAGER, Steele. The Odes of Horace. A critical study. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1963.

CONTE, Gian Biagio (Ed). Aeneis. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2009.

CONTE, Gian Biagio. Dell’imitazione. Furto e originalità. Pisa: Edizioni della Normale, 2014.

CONTE, Gian Biagio. Genres and readers. Translated by Glenn Most. Baltimore/London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

DAVIS, Gregson. Polyhymnia. The rhetoric of horatian lyric discourse. Berkeley/Los Angeles/Oxford: University of California Press, 1991.

EISENBERGER, H. Der innere Zusammenhang der Motive in Tibulls Gedicht I, 3. Hermes, v. 88, p. 188-197, 1960.

ENK, P.J. Sex. Propertii elegiarum liber secundus. Pars altera commentarium continens. Leyden: A.W. Styhoff, 1962.

FEDELI, Paolo (Ed.). Propertius. Stuttgart/Leipzig: Teubner, 1984.

FEDELI, Paolo. Properzio. Elegie libro II. Introduzione, testo e commento. Cambridge: Francis Cairns, 2005.

FLASCHENRIEM, Barbara. Loss, desire and writing in Propertius 1.19 and 2.15. Classical Antiquity, v. 16, n. 2, p. 259-277, 1997.

FRAENKEL, Eduard. Horace. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957.

GAGLIARDI, Paola. Orfeo e l’ombra di Cornelio Gallo nei poeti augustei. Wiener Studien, v. 126, p. 101-126, 2013.

GARRISON, Daniel H. Horace. Epodes and Odes. A new annotated latin edition. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

GREENE, Ellen; WELCH, Tara S. (Ed.). Oxford readings in classical studies. Propertius. Oxford: University Press, 2012.

HARDIE, Philip (Ed.). The Cambridge companion to Ovid. Cambridge: University Press, 2002a.

HARDIE, Philip. The poetics of illusion. Cambridge: University Press, 2002b.

HARRISON, S. J. Generic enrichment in Vergil and Horace. Oxford: University Press, 2007.

HARRISON, S. J. (Ed.). Horace Odes Book II.Cambridge: University Press, 2017.

HEYWORTH, S. J. Cynthia. A companion to the text of Propertius. Oxford: University Press, 2007.

HOLLIS, Adrian. Fragments of roman poetry c.60 BC-AD 20. Oxford: University Press, 2007.

HORACE. The complete odes and epodes. Translated with an introduction and notes by David West. Oxford/New York: University Press, 1997.

HOUGHTON, L. B. T. Ovid’s dead parrot sketch: “Amores” II. 16. Mnemosyne, v. 53, fasc. 6, p. 718-720, 2000.

HOUGHTON, L. B. T. Tibullus’ elegiac underworld. Classical Quartely, v. 77.1, p. 153-165, 2007.

HUSKEY, Samuel J. In memory of Tibullus: Ovid’s remembrance of Tibullus 1.3 in Amores 3.9 and Tristia 3.3. Arethusa, v. 38, p. 367-386, 2005.

JONES, Elisabeth. A homeric echo in Horace c II:13, “Ille et Nefasto”. Hermes, v. 129, n. 4, p. 563-564, 2001.

KEENEY, E. J. (Ed.). P. Ovidi Nasonis Amores; Medicamina faciei femineae; Ars matoria; Remedia amoris. Oxford: University Press, 1994.

KIM, M. I. A parrot and piety: Alcuin’s nightingale and Ovid’s Amores 2.6. Latomus, v. 51,

p. 881-891, 1992.

KNOX, Peter E. (Ed.). Oxford readings in classical studies. Ovid. Oxford: University Press, 2006.

KUHLMANN, Peter. Odysseus, Theokrit und Tibull: Die Ironisierung des sprechenden Ich bei Tibull am Beispiel der Elegie I, 3. Hermes, v. 134, n. 4, p. 419-441, 2006.

LEE-STECUM, Parshia. Powerplay in Tibullus. Reading Elegies Book one. Cambridge: University Press, 1998.

LEITÃO, Lima. As obras de Públio Virgílio Maro, traduzidas em verso portuguez. Rio de Janeiro: Typographia Real, 1819.

LOWRIE, Michèle. Horace’s narrative Odes. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.

MALTBY, Robert. Tibullus: Elegies. Text, introduction and commentary. Cambridge: Francis Cairns, 2002.

MCKEOWN, J.C. Ovid: Amores. Text, prolegomena and commentary. Volume I. Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1987.

MILLER, John F. Apollo, Augustus, and the poets. Cambridge, University Press, 2011.

MILLS, Donald H. Tibullus and Phaeacia: a reinterpretation of 1.3. The Classical Journal,

v. 69, n. 3, p. 226-233, 1974.

MONTUSCHI, Claudia. Aurora nelle Metamorfosi di Ovidio: um topos rinnovato, tra epica ed elegia. Materiali e discussioni per l’analisi dei testi classici, v. 41, p. 71-125, 1998.

MORELLI, Alfredo M. I “saturnia regna” nell’elegia 1.3 di Tibullo. Materiali e discussioni per l’analisi dei testi classici, v. 26, p. 175-187, 1991.

MÜLLER, Carl Wener. Imaginationen des Todes in den Elegien des Tibull und Properz. Antike und Abendland, v. 41, p. 132-141, 1995.

MURGATROYD, Paul. Tibullus I. A commentary on the first book of the elegies of Albius Tibullus. Pietermaritzburg: Universiy of Natal Press, 1980.

MYERS, K.S. Ovid’s tecta ars: Amores 2.6, programmatics and the parrot. Echos du Monde Classique, v. 34, n. 9, p. 367-374, 1990.

NISBET, R.G.M.; HUBBARD, Margaret. A commentary on Horace: Odes. Book II. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1978.

NISBET, R.G.M.; RUDD, N. A commentary on Horace: Odes. Book III. Oxford, University Press, 2004.

NORDEN, Eduard. P. Vergilius Maro Aeneis Buch VI. Stuttgart: Teubner, 1957.

OTTAVIANO, Silvia. Cinzia e un catalogo di poeti erotici: Prop. 2, 34, 93. Materiali e discussioni per l’analisi dei testi classici, v. 63, p. 165-174, 2009.

OVID. Heroides, Amores. With an English translation by Grant Showerman revised by G. P. Goold. Cambridge, Massachusetts/London: Harvard University Press, 1996.

PAPANGHELIS, T. D. Propertius: a hellenistic poet on love and death. Cambridge: University Press, 2009 [1987].

PERKINS, Caroline A. Love’s Arrows Lost: Tibullan Parody in Amores 3.9. Classical World, v. 86, n. 6, p. 459-466, 1993.

PICCOLO, Alexandre Prudente. O arco e a lira: modulações da épica homérica nas Odes de Horácio. PHD Thesis in Classical Studies. Instituto de Estudos da Linguagem/Departamento de Linguística, Campinas, 2014.

PICHON, Réné. Index Verborum Amatoriorum. Hildesheim/Zürick/New York: Georg Olms, 1991.

POSTGATE, J.P. (Translator). Tibullus. In: Catullus, Tibullus and Pervigilium Veneris. London/New York, William Heinemann/G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1921.

PUTNAM, Michael (Ed.). Tibullus: A commentary. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979.

QUINN, Kenneth.Catullus. The poems. London/Basignstoke: Macmillan St. Martin’s Press, 1970.

REED, J.D. Bion of Smyrna. The fragments of the Adonis. Cambridge: University Press, 1997.

ROTHSTEIN, Max. Die Elegien des Sextus Propertius. V. I. 2ª.ed., Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1920.

ROTHSTEIN, Max. Die Elegien des Sextus Propertius. V. II. 2ª.ed. Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1924.

RUDD, Niall (Ed.). Horace 2000: a celebration. Essays for the bimillennium. London: Duckworth, 1993.

RUSSELL, D. A.; WILSON, N. G. (Ed.). Menander Rhetor. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981.

SCHMIDT, V. Corinnas psittacus im Elysium (Ovid Amores 2,6). Lampas, v. 18, n. 3, p. 214-251, 1985.

SCHMITZER, Ulrich. Gallus im Elysium. Ein Versuch über Ovids Trauerelegie auf den toten Papagei Corinnas (am. 2,6). Gymnasium, v. 104, p. 245-270, 1997.

SMITH, Kirby Flower. The elegies of Albius Tibullus. Darmstadt: Wissenschatfliche Buchgesellschaft, 1964.

STAHL, Hans-Peter. Propertius: “Love” and “war”. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press, 1985.

SYNDIKUS, Hans Peter. Die Elegien des Properz. Eine Interpretation. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2010.

TAYLOR, Jennifer Hassel. Amores 3.9: a farewell to elegy. Latomus, v. 29, p. 474-477, 1970.

THOMAS, Elisabeth. A comparative analysis of Ovid, “Amores”, II, 6 and III, 9. Latomus, v. 24, p. 599-609, 1965a.

THOMAS, Elisabeth. Ovid Amores iii.9. The Classical Review, v. 15, p. 149-151, 1965b.

THORSEN, Thea (Ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Latin love elegy. Cambridge: University Press, 2013.

THORSEN, Thea. Ovid’s early poetry. From his single Heroides to his Remedia Amoris. Cambridge: University Press, 2014.

VASCONCELOS, Paulo Sérgio de. Efeitos intertextuais na Eneida de Virgílio. São Paulo: Humanitas-Fapesp, 2001.

VASCONCELOS, Paulo Sérgio de. Persona poética e autor empírico na poesia amorosa romana. São Paulo: Editora da Unifesp, 2016.

VERGIL. The Aeneid. Translated by Sarah Ruden. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2008.

WHITAKER, Richard. Myth and personal experience in roman love-elegy. A study in poetic tecnique. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983.

WILLIAMS, Frederick. Ovid Amores 3.9.20. The American Journal of Philology, v. 124, n. 2,

p. 225-234, 2003.

WIMMEL, Walter. Der frühe Tibull. Münch: W. Fink Verlag, 1968.

WYKE, Maria. The Roman mistress. Ancient and modern representations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.




Como Citar

Vasconcellos, P. S. de. (2017). Images of Dead Poets in Roman Elegiac and Lyric Underworld. Classica - Revista Brasileira De Estudos Clássicos, 30(2), 47–74.