Paz através do esporte

das fontes antigas à prática moderna


  • Jacques Albert Bromberg University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA



Atletismo; Esporte; Construção da paz; Jogos Olímpicos; Trégua Olímpica.


Neste artigo, advogo pela relevância e utilidade de materiais e fontes antigas na teorização e implementação de métodos contemporâneos de construção da paz. Em particular, concentro-me no emprego duradouro de esportes e atletismo como ferramentas para a transição de combatentes de tempos de guerra para tempos de paz, para mitigar as consequências sociais negativas da guerra e para desenvolver uma comunidade transnacional resiliente e interconectada. Extraio exemplos de fontes materiais bem documentadas do atletismo grego antigo para fazer conexões entre as práticas antiga e moderna, extraindo lições úteis para os praticantes de hoje. Ao oferecer comparações transculturais de abordagens de resolução de conflitos por meio da competição atlética, este artigo contribui também para os debates sobre a ética do uso do esporte como ferramenta intervencionista em sociedades pós-conflito e demonstra os benefícios de se ter uma longa visão histórica sobre as questões globais.


Os dados de download ainda não estão disponíveis.

Biografia do Autor

  • Jacques Albert Bromberg, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

    Assistant Professor in Classical Studies, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA



ABRAHAM, Arthur. Dancing with the chameleon: Sierra Leone and the elusive quest for peace. Journal of contemporary African studies, v. 19, n. 2, p. 205-22, 2001.

BLACK, David R. The ambiguities of development: implications for ‘development through sport’. Sport in society, v. 13, p. 121-9, 2010.

BROMBERG, Jacques A. “Pax Olympica? The rhetoric and ideology of the olympic truce”. In: La paz: perspectivas. Bogotá, 2020.

BROMBERG, Jacques A. Global classics. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2021a.

BROMBERG, Jacques A. Sport and peace: Panhellenic myth-making and the modern Olympics. In: PAPAIOANNOU, Sofia; SERAFIM, Andreas; EDWARDS, Mike (eds.). Brill’s Companion to the reception of rhetoric. Leiden: Brill, 2021b, p. 356-78.

CALLEBAT, Louis. The modern Olympic games and their model in antiquity. International journal of the classical tradition, v. 4, n. 4, p. 555-66, 1999.

CARTER, David M. (ed.). Why Athens? A reappraisal of tragic politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

CHATFIELD, Charles. The American peace movement: ideals and activism. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992.

CHRISTESEN, Paul. Sport and democratization in ancient Greece. In: CHRISTESEN, Paul; KYLE, Donald G. (eds.). A companion to sport and spectacle in Greek and Roman antiquity. Malden, MA: Wiley, 2014, p. 211-35.

CONNOR, Walter R. City Dionysia and Athenian Democracy. In: CONNOR, Walter R.; HANSEN, Mogens H.; RAAFLAUB, Kurt A. (eds.). Aspects of Athenian democracy. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1990, p. 7-32.

CORTRIGHT, David. Peace: a history of movements and ideas. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

COUBERTIN, Pierre. Olympism: selected writings. Ed. Norbert Müller. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee, 2000.

DARNELL, Simon C. Sport for development and peace: a critical sociology. London: Bloomsbury Academic Press, 2012.

DARNELL, Simon C.; FIELD, Russell.; KIDD, Bruce. The history and politics of sport-for-development. Activists, ideologues and reformers. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2019.

DARNELL, Simon C.; HAYHURST, Lyndsay. De-colonising sport-for-development: critical insights from post-colonial feminist theory. In: SCHULENKORF, Nico; ADAIR, Daryl (eds.). Global sport-for-development. Critical perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013, p. 33-61.

DOBLHOFER, Georg; PETERMANDL, Werner; SCHACHINGER, Ursula. Ringen. Texte, Ubersetzungen, Kommentar. Vienna: Böhlau, 1998.

DOERRIES, Brian. The theater of war: what ancient Greek tragedies can teach us today. New York: Vintage Books, 2015.

DUGDALE, Eric; GERSTBAUER, Loramy. Forms of justice in Aeschylus’ Eumenides. Polis, v. 34, p. 226-50, 2017.

DYCK, Christopher B. Football and Post-War Reintegration: exploring the role of sport in DDR processes in Sierra Leone. Third World Quarterly, v. 32, n. 3, p. 395-415, 2011.

FISHER, Nick. Athletics and citizenship. In: DUPLOY, Alain; BROCK, Roger W. (eds.). Defining citizenship in archaic Greece. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 189-225.

GALTUNG, Johan. After violence: 3R, reconstruction, reconciliation, resolution: coping with visible and invisible effects of war and violence. Princeton: Transcend, 1998.

GALTUNG, Johan. On the social costs of modernization. Social disintegration, Atomie/Anomie and social development. Development and Change, v. 27, n. 2, p. 379-413, 1996.

GALTUNG, Johan. Violence, peace and peace research. Journal of peace research, v. 6, n. 3, p. 166-92, 1969.

GALTUNG, Johan; HÖIVIK, Tord. Structural and direct violence: a note on operationalization. Journal of Peace Research, v. 8, p. 73-6, 1971.

GARDINER, Edward N. Wrestling. Journal of Hellenic Studies, v. 25, p. 14-31, 1905.

GIULIANOTTI, Richard. Sport, transnational peacemaking, and global civil society: exploring the reflective discourses of ‘sport, development and peace’ project officials. Journal of sport and social issues, v. 35, n. 1, p. 50-71, 2011.

GIULIANOTTI, Richard. Sport: a critical sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005.

GIULIANOTTI, Richard. The sport for development and peace sector: an analysis of its emergence, key institutions, and social possibilities. Brown Journal of World Affairs, v. 18, p. 279-93, 2012.

GIULIANOTTI, Richard; COALTER, Fred; COLLISON, Holly; DARNELL, Simon C. Rethinking Sportland: a new research agenda for the sport for development and peace sector. Journal of sport and social issues, v. 43, n. 6, p. 411-37, 2019.

GOLDEN, Mark. Greek sport and social status. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2008.

GOLDEN, Mark. War and peace in the ancient and Modern Olympics. Greece & Rome, v. 58, p. 1-13, 2011.

GOLDHILL, Simon. The great dionysia as civic ideology. In: WINKLER, John J.; ZEITLIN, Froma I. (eds.) Nothing to do with Dionysus? Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990, p. 97-129.

GUEST, Andrew. The diffusion of development-through-sport: analysing the history and practice of the Olympic movement’s grassroots outreach to Africa. Sport in society, v. 12, p. 1336-52, 2009.

HARRIS, Edward M. Aeschines and Athenian politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

HARRIS, Harold A. Greek athletes and athletics. London: Hutchinson, 1964.

HARTMANN, Douglas. Notes on midnight basketball and the cultural politics of recreation, race, and at-risk urban youth. Journal of sport and social issues, v. 25, n. 4, p. 339-71, 2001.

HAYHURST, Lyndsay; SZTO, Courtnay. Corporatizating activism through sport-focused social justice? Investigating Nike’s corporate responsibility initiatives in sport for development and peace. Journal of sport and social issues, v. 40, n. 6, p. 522-44, 2016.

HEINILÄ, Kalevi. Sport and international understanding – a contradiction in terms? Sociology of sport Journal, v. 2, p. 248-8, 1985.

HILLS, Stephen; VELÁSQUEZ, Alejandro Gómez; WALKER, Matthew. Sport as an analogy to teach life skills and redefine moral values: A case study of the ‘Seedbeds of Peace’ sport-for-development programme in Medellin, Colombia. Journal of sport for development, v. 6, n. 10, p. 25-37, 2018.

JEONG, Ho-Won. Peace and conflict studies: an introduction. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2000.

KAUFMAN, Peter; WOLF, Eli. A. Playing and protesting: sport as a vehicle for social change. Journal of sport and social issues, v. 34, n. 2, p. 154-75, 2010.

KEEN, David. Conflict and collusion in Sierra Leone. New York: Palgrave, 2005.

KIDD, Bruce. Cautions, questions and opportunities in sport for development and peace. Third world quarterly, v. 32, p. 603-9, 2011.

KYLE, Donald G. Athletics and ancient Athens. Leiden: Brill, 1987.

KYLE, Donald G. Sport and spectacle in the ancient world. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007.

LUCAS, Shelley. Nike commercial solution: girls, sneakers, and salvation. International review for the sociology of sport, v. 35, p. 149-64, 2000.

MANDIGO, James, John Corlett, Nick Holt, Cathy van Ingen, Guido Geisler, Dany MacDonald, Colin Higgs. The impact of the Hoodlinks Programme on developing life skills and preventing youth violence in Guatemala City. Journal of sport for development, v. 6, n. 11, p. 21-37, 2018.

MCINERNEY, Jeremy. Phlegon of Tralles (257). In: Brill’s New Jacoby, General Editor: Ian Worthington (Macquarie University), 2016. Available in: Accessed 03 June 2021

MEINECK, Peter. Combat trauma and the tragic stage: “Restoration” by cultural catharsis”. Intertexts, v. 16, n. 1, p. 7-24, 2012.

MEINECK, Peter. Theatocracy: Greek drama, cognition, and the imperative for theatre. Abington: Routledge, 2018.

MEINECK, Peter. These are men whose minds the dead have ravished: eater of war /The Philoctetes project. Arion, v. 17, n. 1, p. 173-91, 2009.

MILES, Eustace. Let’s play the game. London, 1904.

MITCHELL-BOYASK, Robin. Aeschylus’s Oresteia. Oxford Bibliographies Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

MÜLLER, Christel. Globalization, transnationalism, and the local in ancient Greece. Oxford handbooks online, classical studies, social and economic History, 2016. Available in: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935390.013.42 Accessed September 28, 2021.

PEARSON, Cameron. Social mobility and athletics in archaic Greece. Paper presented at Society for Classical Studies, San Diego, 2019.

PELAK, Cynthia. F. Athletes as agents of change: an examination of shifting race relations within women’s netball in post-apartheid South Africa. Sociology of Sport Journal, v. 21, p. 59-77, 2005.

PLEKET, Henri. W. Games, prizes, athletes and ideology. Arena (= Stadion), v. 1, p. 49-89, 1974.

PLEKET, Henri. W. Zur Soziologie des antiken Sports. Mededelingen van het Nederlands Instituut te Rome, v. 36, p. 56-87, 1976.

PODLECKI, Anthony J. The political background of aeschylean tragedy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1966.

POLIAKOFF, Michael. The third fall in the Oresteia. American Journal of Philology, v. 101, n. 3, p. 251-9, 1980.

PRITCHARD, David. Athletics, education, and participation in classical athens. In: PHILLIPS, David J.; PRITCHARD, David (eds.). Sport and festival in the ancient Greek world. Swansea: Classical Press of Wales, 2003.

PUGH, Michael. Introduction: The Ownership of Regeneration and Peacebuilding. In: PUGH, Michael (ed.). Regeneration of War-Torn Societies. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000, p. 1-12.

PUGH, Michael. Post-conflict rehabilitation: social and civil dimensions. Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, 1998.

RADT, Stefan. Tragicorum graecorum fragmenta. Vol. 5 Aeschylus. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1985.

RAUBITSCHEK, Antony E. The panhellenic idea and the Olympic games. In: RASCHKE, Wendy J. (ed.). The archaeology of the Olympics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988, p. 35-7.

REDEKER, Robert. Sport as an opiate of international relations: The myth and illusion of sport as a tool of foreign policy. Sport in Society, v. 11, p. 494-500, 2008.

RHODES, Peter J. Nothing to do with democracy: Athenian drama and the polis. Journal of Hellenic Studies, v. 123, p. 104-19, 2003.

SCHULENKORF, Nico and Daryl Adair. Sport-for-development: the emergence and growth of a new genre. In: SCHULENKORF, Nico and Daryl Adair (eds.). Global sport-for-development. Critical perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013, p. 3-14.

SHAY, Jonathan. Achilles in Vietnam: combat trauma and the undoing of character. New York: Scribner, 1994.

SHAY, Jonathan. Odysseus in America: combat trauma and the trials of homecoming. New York: Scribner, 2002.

SHAY, Jonathan. The birth of tragedy – out of the needs of democracy. Didaskalia, v. 2, n. 2, unpaginated, 1995. Available in: Accessed 22 September 2021

SIMPSON, Michael. Trailing the Olympic epic: black modernity and the Athenian arena, 2004. In: GOFF, Barbara; SIMPSON, Michael (eds.). Thinking the Olympics: the classical tradition and the modern games. Bristol, 2011, p. 171-89.

SOMMERSTEIN, Alan H. Aeschylean tragedy. Second Edition. London: Bloomsbury, 2010.

SOMMERSTEIN, Alan H. Aeschylus Eumenides. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

SPIVEY, Nigel. The ancient Olympics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

VLASSOPOULOS, Kostas. Unthinking the Greek polis. Ancient Greek history beyond eurocentrism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

VOLONAKI, Eleni. Epideictic oratory at the Olympic games. In: GOFF, Barbara; SIMPSON, Michael (eds.). Thinking the Olympics: the classical tradition and the modern games. Bristol, p. 76-89, 2011.

WILSON, Brian. Middle-walkers: negotiating middle ground on the shifting terrain of sport, peace and development. In: YOUNG, Kevin; OKADA, Chiaki (eds.). Research in the sociology of sport: sport, social development and peace 8. New York: Emerald Press, 2014, p. 19-43.

WILSON, Brian. Sport and peace: a sociological perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

WRIGHT, Whitney. Keep it in the ring: using boxing in social group work with high-risk and offender youth to reduce violence. Soc Work Groups, v. 29, n; 2-3, p. 149-74, 2006.

YOUNG, David C. The Olympic myth of Greek amateur athletics. Chicago: Ares Publishers, Inc., 1984.





Dossiê Conflict Resolution and Classical Literature

Como Citar

Bromberg, J. A. (2023). Paz através do esporte: das fontes antigas à prática moderna. Classica - Revista Brasileira De Estudos Clássicos, 36, 1-28.